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Technology I

Why the TCG-UC System

Areas Where Improvement in other existing Gasifiers are Desired Include the Following:
Feed Injector Lifetime
Refractory Lifetime or Elimination of the Need for Refractory Liners
Thermocouple Lifetime
Coal Feed Systems
Slag Removal
Development of a Two Stage, Dry Feed Gasifier
Gasifiers Suitable for Low Rank Coals

Specific Technology Innovations that are incorporated in the TCG-UC system

Water Vapor (steam) is added into the system after the water hasbeen super-saturated with negatively charged oxygen using patented water treatment technology (ionized steam reformation)
Syngas is cooled by quenching with water which is then treated using patented technology to remove all tars and phenols, which are then recycled back into the gasifier. (gas clean-up)
Partially decomposed particles are recycled through the system to achieve higher reaction efficiency. (carbon re-cycle)
System operates at lower temperatures, (below vitrification levels) which requires less parasitic load and thus creates higher efficiency (non-slagging gasifier)
Combustion flu gas can be captured and recycled, with minimal emissions.
Final ash from system is generally not leachable, or can be contained in cementaciousbyproducts. (non-hazardous)
Elimination of reactor refractory brick.

Taking into consideration the basic requirements of the purchasers, the TCG-UC System is offering the following:

1. Decreases the expences of electricity (25MW) and heat energy, (30 MW)
2. Increases the total returns of the investment compared to the similar products, Both of them.

The Feed Materials

Feed materials can be all of those that consisting of C, H, O, and other additional elements like N.

The quality and quantity of the product and by-products can be adjusted taking into consideration the basic parameters of the feed materials mentioned bellow:
  1. Energy content,
  2. Ash content,
  3. Volatile content, and the,
  4. Assumption of Carbon in Volatiles,
  5. Moisture content

The main processes of the Carboniferous materilas-to SynGas synthesys.

The TCG technology

The Processes of the Thermo-Chemical Gasification

The TCG Unit

The designed view of TCG Unit from above

The „Inside view” drowing attachment of the plan of the TCG Unit

The Side and the top view the TCG Unit (80ftX50ftX20ft , 250tpd)

The basic thermo-chemical reactions – The gasification chemistry

The following chemical equations describe the processes that take place in the conversion of coal or other carbonaceous feedstock materials into synthesis gas.

Combustion with Oxygen: C + O2 ↔ CO2
Gasification with Oxygen: 2C + O2 ↔ 2CO
Gasification with Carbon Dioxide: C + CO2 ↔ 2CO
Gasification with Steam:   C + H2O ↔ CO + H2
Gasification with Hydrogen: C + 2H2 ↔ CH4
Water Gas Shift Reaction: CO + H2O ↔ H2 + CO2
Methanation Reaction: CO + 3H2 ↔ CH4 + H2O

The basic chemical reactions of near zero emission – „NZE” – unique to TCG are

NOx Emission Control:

CO + NOx +H2O ↔ O2CNO + H2O2

Reaction creates Nitroxyl reactive ions and hydrogen peroxide vapor which provides additional quench water purification and final Nitroxyl precipitation into water filters.

Sulfur Emission Control

CO + SOx +H2O ↔ O2CSO + H2O2

Reaction creates Sulfinoxyl reactive ions and hydrogen peroxide vapor which provides additional quench water purification and final Sulfinoxyl precipitation into water filters.

Metals Emission Control

O-x + M ↔ MOx

Ionized oxygen reaction creates metal oxides which are coagulated and precipitated into water filters. The Energy Mass Balance of TCG

CO 6.92 5.36 5.8 4.73
H2 76.21 83.30 80.8 84.67
CH4 6.1 15.36 14.06 12.06
CO2 10.23 4.01 4.5 3.45
Carbonyl Sulfide .005 .0052 .004 0
Hydrogen Sulfide .37 .74 .19 .14
BTU/sef 287 385 368 362

Technology Name/Design Feature GE Energy(formerly Texaco) E-Gas(ConocoPhillips) Shell Thermo Conversions, LLC
Feed System Coal in Water Slurry Coal in Water Slurry Dry coal, Lock Hopper & Pneumatic Conveying Dry (As Received) Coal, Air lock Drag Conveyor
Gasifier Configuration Single Stage Downflow Two Stage Upflow Single Stage Upflow 4 Stage Horizontal Circular Flow
Gasifier Wall Refractory Refractory Membrane Wall Inconel
Pressure (psig) 500-1000 Up to 600 Up to 600 80
Notes Offered as Quench or with Heat Recovery Currently only offered with Heat Recovery Currently only offered with Heat Recovery Quench Onl